Tennis Ball Problem Solution
Given 27 table tennis balls, one is heavier than the others.
What is the minimum number of weighings (using a two-pan balance scale) needed to guarantee identifying the heavy one? Always. Of course, the other 26 balls weigh the same.
It is enough to use a pair of scales 3 times.Divide the 27 balls to 3 groups, 9 balls in each. Compare 2 groups – the heavier one contains the ball. If there is equilibrium, then the ball is in the third group. Thus we know the 9 suspicious balls.
Divide the 9 balls to 3 groups of 3. Compare 2 groups, and as mentioned above, identify the group of 3 suspicious balls.
Compare 2 balls (of the 3 possibly heavier ones) and you know everything.
So we used a pair of scales 3 times to identify the heavier ball.